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Righteousness exalteth a nation: but sin is a reproach to any people.
(Proverbs 14:34)

The ‘Tyninghame’ copy of the Declaration from 1320 AD

No doubt, the 1320 AD Declaration of Arbroath was an ancient manifestation of the common belief that the Anglo-Celtic people had their ethnic and national and religious ties to ancient Israel. In the Scottish letter to the Pope consider this pronouncement of ancient lineage to strengthen the Scots claim to independence. The declaration refers to the tenacity of the Scottish people in maintaining their distinct culture, national origin and ethnicity. Moreover, an appeal was made to the “Vicar of Christ” based on traditional historical claims. The powerful argument based on historical precedent is made to the Bishop of Rome as follows.

“Most Holy Father and Lord, we know and from the chronicles and books of the ancients we find that among other



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